hormones and their functions

Hormones and Their Functions | Endocrine Glands and Hormone

The human body has certain chemicals called hormones that serve as the body’s messengers. Endocrine glands are specialized glands that release these chemicals. The body contains many of these endocrine glands. The way hormones work has a big impact on the human body.

These hormones play a role in the regulation of a variety of physiological functions as well as human physical health. Here, we’ll go into great detail regarding hormones and their functions i.e. how they work in the body. Additionally, we’ll discuss how hormones and endocrine glands interact.

Endocrine Glands and Hormones

The hormonal system, also known as the endocrine system, is a reticulation of glands in the body that produces hormones that let cells communicate with one another. They control nearly every cell, organ, and bodily function. Your body may experience a number of health issues if your endocrine system is not functioning properly.

Endocrine glands and hormones are interconnected. Hormones act as the body’s transmit system. They use signals from one area of the body to direct another area to execute essential action. The endocrine glands play a role in many different bodily processes, including growth, weight gain, reproduction, metabolism, and other functions. Here is the list of major glands:

  • Pineal gland
  • Hypothalamus Pituitary gland
  • Thymus
  • Adrenal glands
  • Kidneys
  • Pancreas
  • Thyroid gland

The base of the human brain contains the hypothalamus, which links the brain and the hormone system. They connect the neuronal and hormonal systems with the hypothalamus. Its hormones maintain the body’s balance.

hormones and their functions
hormones and their functions, Image created in BioRender.com

They have an impact on the body’s reaction to illness, mood, memory, appetite, sex drive, alertness,  body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and more. The endocrine system and hormones impact the body’s functions as well as psychological functions. Here is the list of the major hormones:

  • Luteinising hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • Antidiuretic hormone
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone
  • Dopamine
  • Somatostatin
  • Oxytocin

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland is the body’s endocrine system’s major gland. Using the information received from the brain it instructs other glands in the body. This gland produces a number of crucial hormones, such as prolactin, a growth hormone, which aids lactating mothers in producing milk. Another hormone is the antidiuretic hormone, which controls blood pressure and aids in controlling the body’s water balance by acting on the kidneys.

Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormone, which regulates your metabolism and growth. Everything moves more slowly if this gland doesn’t produce enough, and your heart rate may also slow down. You can develop constipation or put on weight. On the other hand, when it performs too much, everything accelerates.

For example, your heart may beat more quickly,  you might begin to lose weight. The hormone calcitonin, which is also produced by the thyroid gland, may contribute to stronger bones by facilitating calcium absorption into the bone.

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Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Gland is crucial for the production of epinephrine, commonly known as adrenaline, the hormone associated with fight. Additionally, both of these glands produce corticosteroid hormones. Among other things, they have an impact on your heart rate, oxygen intake, metabolism, blood flow, sexual function, etc.

 Pineal Gland

The pineal Gland is a small gland located close to the brain’s centre.  It produces melatonin, a key hormone that aids in sleep.

Thymus Gland

T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that fights infection, are produced by this specific thymus gland. The thymus gland starts to decrease after puberty.

Hormones and their functions

The human body has various types of hormones and their functions are different in the body. As a messenger that is released into the blood, hormones work. They are carried by the blood to the body’s many organs and tissues. Hormones bind to the receptors once they have reached their target spot. A number of significant functions of hormones are:

  • Hormones control mood and cognitive functions
  • They contribute to growth and development
  • They contribute to food metabolism
  • In order to maintain the temperature of the body, hormones help.
  • Hormones control thirst as well as  hunger
  • They maintain sexual development

The hormones are classified into three main types that are based on their chemical structure. They include Lipid-Derived, Peptide, and Amino Acid-Derived hormones. Some significant hormones in human body and their functions are described below:

Thyroid Hormone

The thyroid gland basically releases two hormones Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine, and they are called thyroid hormones. These hormones aim in regulating your body’s metabolism.

Growth Hormone

Growth hormone is essentially a protein hormone with amino acids that is generated as well as secreted by the anterior pituitary cells. It promotes metabolism-boosting growth and cell regeneration.

Prolactin Hormone

A protein called prolactin hormone is effective for helping mammals create milk. It affects more than 300 different processes in men and animals.

Luteinizing Hormone

Luteinizing hormone is a certain hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland that promotes both female ovulation and male androgen synthesis.

Oxytocin Hormone

The posterior pituitary releases oxytocin, a peptide hormone and neuropeptide that is typically made in the hypothalamus. It contributes to social interaction, reproduction, etc.

Insulin Hormone

Insulin hormone, which is produced by the pancreas, helps the body turn glucose from  food into energy.

Thyroxine Hormone 

The thyroid gland releases the hormone thyroxine, which aids in regulating the human body’s metabolism.

Parathyroid Hormone

The parathyroid glands produce the hormone parathyroid. Your neck contains four small glands. This hormone regulates the volume of calcium in your blood.

Mineralocorticoids hormone

Salt and water balances are regulated by a group of steroid hormones known as mineralocorticoids. The most important mineralocorticoid is aldosterone. The body’s sodium and potassium transport is aided by the hormone mineralocorticoids.

Glucocorticoids Hormone

Steroid hormones known as glucocorticoids are extensively utilized to treat cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune disorders.

Sex Hormone

Sex hormones are called steroid hormones. Its work is to communicate with vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.

Adrenaline Hormone

Certain neurons are present in the central nervous system as well as  medulla of the adrenal gland. They secrete the hormone adrenaline. It is sometimes referred to as an emergency hormone since it triggers a rapid response that causes people to act and think swiftly under pressure.


There are many more hormones and their functions that are observed differently. If there is any disturbance in hormones, various symptoms will arise in the body. Healthy hormones lead to the good functioning of every organ of the body. Treatments also apply to hormone problems.

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